Answers to 10/31/2011 Sub Mystery Questions
Relevant background for claustrophobia and Mexico City's proposed 980-feet deep, inverted-pyramid shaped, subterranean building can be found at M.E.'s original post here.
Congratulations to Tom Goering who answered 3 of these tough questions, and Contrary in Texas, who answered a fourth.
QUESTIONS of the WEEK ANSWERED:
1. The average MRI examination requires almost 50 minutes, more than enough time for extreme fear and anxiety to set in among claustrophobic patients. About what percentage of patients refuse to undergo MRI scans due to claustrophobic anxiety? ANS: About 5 to 7 % - source - Phobias: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Treatment. Chichester; New York: Wiley, 1997.
2. What percentage of the world population in general is estimated to be affected by severe claustrophobia? ANS: Various studies indicate ranges between 4 - 30% - source - Hricak and Amparo 1984; Quirk et al 1989; Melendez and McCrank 1993.
3. Is there any difference in the frequency of claustrophobia between male and female populations? ANS: Yes; The frequency of claustrophobia in women is reported both as higher, but statistically insignificant, and as twice as high as for women as men. Sources - Rachman, 1997; Iris Eshed MD, Christian E. Althoff MD, Bernd Hamm MD, Kay-Geert A. Hermann MD- 3 JUL 2007
Remaining questions refer to the 65 underground stories of this 980-feet deep, inverted-pyramid shaped, subterranean building proposed for crowded Mexico City.
4. How does the temperature gradient of the Earthscraper compare to that of a submarine at a depth 980-f00t depth? In the event that mechanical ventilation in the Earthscraper fails, would the natural temperature at the deepest be cooler or hotter than on the top floor of the structure at midnight? ANS: Hotter. Below ground geothermal conditions (gradient) cause a temperature increase at greater depths. Generally, for every 328 feet below ground, the temperature increases 5.4 degrees Fahrenheit. The bottom tip of the inverted, subterranean building therefore, would be surrounded by earth about 15 degs F hotter than the floors nearer the surface. For submarines, however, sea temperatures generally decrease with depth (thermocline). At a sea depth of 980 feet, average sea temperature is roughly 29 degs F cooler than at sea level.
5. What two types of catastrophic hazards connected with such an inverted building are most likely to be anticipated and safeguarded against by its architects? ANS: Standard fire suppression methods would be particularly problematical for occupants of deeper levels. A deluge of either water or fire suppressants could drown or asphyxiate such occupants, respectively. Also, any event requiring evacuation of all occupants would require multiple, independently energized means of rapid egress for those on lower levels. Sixty-five stories of stairs would be too challenging for 99.9% of the population to negotiate in a rapid manner. Would people with physical disabilities ever be allowed ten stories below ground level?
Submarines are always silent and strange.